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Intracellular calcium homeostasis and its dysregulation underlying epileptic seizures

  • Author Footnotes
    1 These two authors contributed equally to this work.
    Xu Zhou
    Footnotes
    1 These two authors contributed equally to this work.
    Affiliations
    Clinical Research and Experimental Center, Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Medical University, Zhanjiang, Guangdong 524001, China
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  • Author Footnotes
    1 These two authors contributed equally to this work.
    Zengqiang Chen
    Footnotes
    1 These two authors contributed equally to this work.
    Affiliations
    Department of Neurology, Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Medical University, Zhanjiang, Guangdong 524001, China
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  • Lin Xiao
    Affiliations
    Department of Neurology, Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Medical University, Zhanjiang, Guangdong 524001, China
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  • Yanting Zhong
    Affiliations
    Department of Neurology, Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Medical University, Zhanjiang, Guangdong 524001, China
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  • Yang Liu
    Affiliations
    Department of Neurology, Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Medical University, Zhanjiang, Guangdong 524001, China
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  • Jianhao Wu
    Affiliations
    Department of Neurology, Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Medical University, Zhanjiang, Guangdong 524001, China
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  • Hua Tao
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author.
    Affiliations
    Department of Neurology, Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Medical University, Zhanjiang, Guangdong 524001, China

    Guangdong Key Laboratory of Age-related Cardiac and Cerebral Diseases, Guangdong Medical University, Zhanjiang, Guangdong 524001, China
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  • Author Footnotes
    1 These two authors contributed equally to this work.
Published:November 10, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seizure.2022.11.007

      Highlights

      • A series of molecular components for calcium homeostasis are involved in calcium dysregulation that underlies epilepsy.
      • Epileptic phenotypes were confirmed in several molecular components by transgenic animal models, such as CACNA1A and IP3R1.
      • Calcium-binding proteins are an additional defense to buffer cytosolic calcium for modulating nervous excitability.

      Abstract

      Biological activities require a delicate balance between excitatory and inhibitory signals in the brain. Disruption of this balance could lead to neurological disorders, such as epilepsydue to a relative enhancement of excitatory signals. In general, cytosolic calcium plays a key role in the transmission of excitatory signals mainly by promoting the release of synaptic vesicles containing neurotransmitters. A series of molecular components responsible for maintaining intracellular calcium homeostasis, including voltage-gated calcium (CaV) channels, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium sensor stromal interaction molecule (STIM), the PM calcium channel Orai, ER-resident inositol trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) and ryanodine receptors (RyRs), sarco-endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA), and transmembrane and coiled-coil domains 1 (TMCO1), have been demonstrated to be involved in calcium dysregulation that underlies epileptic seizures. More importantly, epileptic phenotypes were confirmed in several molecular components by transgenic animal models, including CACNA1A, CACNA1E, CACNA1G, CACNA2D1, ORAI1 and IP3R1. Calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs), such as calmodulin, parvalbumin, calretinin, and calbindin, provide an additional layer of defense by acting as calcium reservoirs to buffer rapid increases in cytosolic calcium concentrations and participate in cellular functions by regulating the activities of ion channels or acting as calcium-modulated sensors, and a series of lines of evidence support their implication with epileptic activities. Overall, stroke represents the most common environmental cause of acquired epilepsy in older adults, and preventing calcium disruption due to reperfusion injury might be an effective way to treat acute symptomatic seizures and decrease the risk for acquired poststroke epilepsy.

      Keywords

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