This study aimed to define independent factors associated with the onset of early
seizure (ES) amongst patients with cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT).
This retrospective cohort study recruited patients diagnosed with CVT and hospitalised
between 2002 and 2020. Demographic, clinical, and seizure characteristics; neuroimaging
findings; and clinical outcomes were compared between the seizure and non-seizure
groups. Factors with p-values of <0.05 in univariate analysis were included in multivariate logistic regression
analysis to determine independent predictors of ES.
Amongst 180 CVT patients, the incidence of ES was 38.3%. Most seizures presented as
the initial symptom. Focal to bilateral tonic-clonic seizure was the most common seizure
type (82.6%). Recurrent serial seizure and non-fatal status epilepticus accounted
for 56.5% and 8.7% cases, respectively. Intracerebral haemorrhage (adjusted odds ratio
[aOR]=6.57, 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.25‒19.21, p = 0.001) and dependency status at admission (aOR=3.32, 95% CI, 1.08‒10.18, p = 0.036) independently predicted ES, whereas isolated increased intracranial pressure
(aOR=0.05, 95% CI, 0.01‒0.24, p < 0.001), isolated headache (aOR=0.10, 95% CI, 0.02‒0.45, p = 0.002), straight sinus thrombosis (aOR=0.03, 95% CI, 0.00‒0.37, p = 0.007), and cavernous sinus thrombosis (aOR=0.50, 95% CI, 0.01‒0.53, p = 0.012) showed protective effects.
Intracerebral haemorrhage and dependency status at admission independently predicted
seizures, whereas isolated increased intracranial pressure, isolated headache, straight
sinus thrombosis, and cavernous sinus thrombosis showed preventive effects.